The Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas is a review of a great hotel


The world-famous Mandalay Bay Hotel, Las Vegas, is considered one of the best Las Vegas hotels, offering superb luxury and amenities suitable for both royalty and members of the state. Its unique but tasteful architecture and beautifully manicured tropical landscapes are truly colorful and noteworthy. It is conveniently located next to the city’s only single-track train system, which gives guests easy access to just about anything the strip has to offer.

The Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas, which has 3,300 rooms, offers a comfortable setting, exquisite décor, many amenities and a beautiful view of the landscape. Other services include 24-hour security, wedding chapels, laundry / dry cleaning, maid service, room service, more than 13 restaurants, concierge, free parking and more.

The hotel’s casino is reminiscent of the refined establishments of the affluent parts of Western Europe. It has over 120 gaming tables that offer everything from poker to roulette, and even houses a high-stakes area. For those who prefer slot machines and video games, there is a choice of over 2400 as well as a betting shop for sports fans.

Entertainment at the Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas is at its famous event center, where many theaters host rock concerts, musicals and classy theatrical performances from London, Paris, New York and Los Angeles. This largest theater can accommodate up to 12,000 people and it has seen artists such as Bob Dylan and Chicago.

Souvenirs, jewelry, luxury trinkets, clothes and flowers are sold in the collection of beautiful boutiques and shops of the resort for quiet activities and complete rest. Behind the hotel is a full 11-acre water world with a beach, rivers, swimming pool, surf pool, swimming pool and bungalows, a chic gym and full treadmill, a large aquarium with over 100 species, a drinking room and a fully equipped nightclub.

Business visitors to the Mandalay Bay Hotel, Las Vegas, have access to nothing but the best banquet and conference facilities, as well as equipment, staff and catering. Other business services are available upon request.

The Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas has hosted guests from queens and kings, to presidents and prime ministers from around the globe. He has seen a fair share of millionaires and billionaires, but to this day the hotel welcomes people from all walks of life, offering a taste of true luxury even for a moment. This hotel is truly one of the best rates and best value for money!


Tips for traveling by train to Morocco


When traveling by train, first know some recommendations for booking tickets, class travel, travel time, ticket price and train station travel.

During your visit to Morocco, boarding the train is one of the most convenient ways to travel around the country. It is affordable and you will be able to get to key cities quickly. If you want to travel by train, be sure to read some important tips.

Ticket booking

Upon arrival in Morocco you can book tickets at any time or buy tickets anywhere in the country. The train system in Morocco is extensive, so usually driving a dilemma is not a dilemma. However, the trip to Marrakech from Tangier is different. If the couches are fully occupied, you can take advantage of the second class, although some hotel owners may be imprisoned and book you a trip in advance.

Travel class

In Morocco, there are two ways to travel by train: first class and second class. Six people are accommodated in a first-class compartment, and eight people can be accommodated in a second-class car. Booking first class allows you to actually book, which is very cool if you want to sit by the window to enjoy the view. If not, this is the first to come. Usually there are food carts that offer passengers drinks and snacks at different prices.

Time on the go

The train schedule can be checked on the official ONCF website in French. From Marrakech you can get to Casablanca in 3 hours, Rabat in 4 hours and Fes in 7 hours. From Tangier you can reach Marrakech in 11 hours by direct night travel, and Fes – in 5 hours and vice versa.

Ticket price

Train tickets to Morocco are available. You will pay for the train ticket in cash. Children under 4 travel for free, and children aged 4-12 enjoy lower rates. Fees vary depending on the class of travel, with the first class being more expensive than the second class.

We get to the station

Upon arrival at Casablanca International Airport you can take the train to the city’s central station. From there you can go to the right place like Fes, Marrakech, Tangier and other cities in Morocco. In cities other than Casablanca, you can call a taxi to take you to the nearest train station. Always try to prepare the hotel address before departure. Other cities also offer a bus route.

While at the train station, always check the schedule so as not to miss the trip. Also, keep an eye on your belongings. If you bring your own food to the train, be kind enough to offer them to one of the passengers if it is not Ramadan.


Why You Should Never Settle Your Credit Card Debt


Most people think that credit is good, but it is true that credit is a tool used against many consumers. The problem is that most of the American population is broken and dependent on a survival loan. Credit is debt management, and most people do not understand how to manage debt. The school system in the US spends so much time teaching students how to live their lives robotically that they forget money management lessons. Everything from employment, car rental to hotel booking, depends on some form of lending. The loan is for poor people who do not have enough cash. This is a problem that rich people should not worry about.

The United States is the richest country on the planet, but has the widest gap between rich and poor. The CEO of Wal-Mart earns about $ 7,000 an hour as opposed to cashiers and other Wal-Mart employees who barely earn $ 300 a week. How can anyone manage debts and live comfortably while earning this type of salary. Most people are taught to negotiate credit card debt and improve credit. This is the biggest mistake any consumer can make. Consumers are unaware that at any given time, a credit card company settles with a debt of $ 600 less than their outdated balance sheet. By law, the card company must report this to the IRS. This is very important for the consumer because the IRS will eventually consume 1099C. The consumer will have to pay taxes on the loan charged by the company that issued the credit cards. This is capitalism and at the same time unjust. However, what can a person do who is already trying to pay the bills to protect himself? They may allow the lender to recover the debt with a tax loss. If this happens, the debt can no longer be recovered by the lender.

Many credit card companies will continue to sell their written-off accounts to agency agencies for pennies on the dollar. Collection agencies will convince many consumers that if they do not pay this debt, it will ruin their credit. Many consumers are unaware that paying an offender or collection bill will not improve their credit score so much as to help them get more loans. Consumers should always ask for confirmation of indebtedness from collection agencies with complete documentation. Most collection agencies are unable to provide this information and send the consumer a screenshot of the balance received from the original lender. Sometimes they send a statement to the consumer about the destruction of the instrument. It just means they don’t have the original documents. The consumer must always respond with a waiver and file a complaint with the Bureau of Business Improvement, forcing the collection agency to prepare an original contract, which in most cases they cannot.

The reality of our credit management society is that cash is king. Credit is a whip used for modern slavery and socio-economic control. Until people demand change in our political, educational, and credit systems, they will be forced to live their lives as intellectual and working prostitutes for wealthy people as well as the corporations they lead.


Do you know the benefits of staying in a five star hotel?


When choosing a hotel you will see that some countries operate on a star system. This means that hotels are rated in terms of their facilities, services, rooms and service, and these ratings are given from one star to five stars. You may be wondering what the benefits of living in a five-star establishment are. The benefits are broad and include:

Elegance and luxury

One of the things that you are guaranteed to stay in a five-star hotel is that you are guaranteed to stay in an elegant and luxurious guest room that is well equipped and offers all the modern amenities you need to expect. Five-star hotels flow with luxury – a place where you expect to stay and behave like a royal family.


In a five star hotel you will find that your comfort is their priority. They have chosen the highest quality beds so you can sleep peacefully. Their cleaning crews clean each room, paying close attention to details so that you always provide a clean room free of dirt and dust. They do their best to meet your specific needs, whether you have mobility needs or dietary needs, they will try their best to keep your comfort level satisfied at all times.

Improved services

You can be sure that staying at a five star hotel is something you will receive first class service from every team member. From team executives to cleaning teams and front home teams to kitchen teams, each team member focuses on providing unexpected services to guests, ensuring that they exceed guest expectations and the demand is not too big or too small.

The best services and services

Another advantage of a five star hotel is that they always provide the best services and services. If you stay at a three-star hotel, you may enjoy some of these facilities and services, but by staying at a five-star luxury hotel, you are guaranteed to have all the amenities and services you need during your stay.

Some of the amenities and services you can expect when staying at a five-star hotel include a 24-hour front desk, twenty-four-hour room service, concierge services and housekeeping. In addition, these hotels have their own restaurant and bar, wellness center, indoor pool and fitness center.

Pamper yourself

When booking a five star hotel before your next vacation you want to relax, put your feet up and relax. You don’t want to work, whether it’s making a bed, cooking for the family, or making dinner. When you stay in a hotel of this caliber, it’s all done for you so you can really pamper yourself, enjoy your vacation and go home relaxed and rejuvenated.

You pay for what you get

Accommodation in a five-star hotel will be more expensive than in a three- or four-star hotel, but at the same time you will find that you will pay for what you get. Five-star luxury and comfort are unmatched if you choose the right hotel. Choose wisely, read the reviews of previous guests, and then make your final decision based on what you have learned about the hotel and the services they provide.


What features will you look for before purchasing hotel management software?


After 7 years of working in revenue management I share here the bitter truth that most hotel revenue management software is not delivering on what they promise. I would like fully integrated software that can help me simplify all my operations. Perhaps you can get it all from one solution; however, I would be pleased if the following could be achieved:

Indoors or cloud-based?: More important for me is the decision, do I want to go for a local installation or a cloud model.

The cloud model works well for small hotels and startups, as it offers them greater availability, does not require regular software updates, technical support, etc. Pay for what you use, no hidden fees and so on. But data security can be a problem. Although I do not have detailed knowledge of how this provider of software for hotel programs on the cloud provides data security, but it is certainly important for us – the hoteliers.

On the other hand, hotel management software is suitable for hotels that already have an excellent technical support team.

Operational work in the front office: I would definitely like the hotel revenue management software to seamlessly manage my operation in the front office.

PricesA: Something with a reliable algorithm to recommend me a quality price, set a budget and a task, I ask too much?

Booking Information: Can tell me real bookings

Monitors Competition.

Easy to useA: There is no point in installing or hiring software that is difficult for me or my team to use. I need to understand each of its features and be able to run it effectively; rather I should have been able to make the most of it for my hotel. I don’t want to go for one that needs me to constantly consult with textbooks.

Instead, it should be so simple that I will be able to write a tutorial on how to use it. I’m kidding!

Detailed reportingA: It should help me with the data report and save me from pulling the reports manually. My sales and revenue data should be clearly in front of my eyes.

Scalability and customizationA: Setup should be required. In case I need to reconcile it with any of my additional systems or processes, this scalability should be free or less. Hope I make sense.

Data security: As I mentioned above, this one is crucial for me. Of course! I don’t want to share my guests ’data with anyone. What could be worse than losing important business competition data! A complete nightmare!

InvoicingA: I should be able to compile a detailed invoice using the hotel’s revenue management software.

What are the pros and cons of parity rates in a hotel revenue strategy?

Hope you find this helpful.

I am not a fan of parity rates as I believe this is a bad strategy for hotels and leads to a loss of profit for us. But there are only a few benefits:

  • Successful distribution of rates by channels: hotels can easily distribute the same prices by channels.
  • Evaluate the uniformity between the channels: the customer is not embarrassed and is not skeptical about the site. What’s more, he doesn’t feel cheated, that somewhere else there was a better price and that he / she was cheated.
  • Best price: This is an advantage more for OTA than for hotels. Lol … OTA can guarantee the best price.

Unlike France, which withdrew from this rate-parity agreement, we who are already stuck need to focus more on what we can do to maximize our profits, and let it not affect us. I tried to improve my guest experience by improving my services. It returns them to me and I am happy to offer them direct orders.

By the way, think about optimal hotel revenue management with an effective tool.


3 ways to plan tools can save you money


It’s a fast-paced world, there are so many things competing for our attention, and we struggle to set as many tasks in 24 hours a day. Whether you are a manager, employee or owner of your own startup, you just have so many meetings, people to meet, and employees and management colleagues. Add to this the daily needs of our personal lives – meeting with a doctor, buying groceries or even visiting a mechanic for scheduled maintenance of your car.

Before computer programs and mobile applications became “incoming,” people used the traditional calendar to organize these events. We are now talking about online calendars, appointment schedulers and mobile apps where you can enter your to-do lists and receive regular reminders.

If there’s anything that executives, executives, and perhaps even a regular employee would appreciate, it’s these scheduling tools they can use to organize assignments or scheduling employees. Here are some ways to use these planning tools in your work or business.

Manage your people

If you work as a supervisor or supervisor, one of your tasks is to organize and manage the people under your supervision, including their work hours or shift schedules. A scheduling tool can make staff scheduling easier and more convenient for you. You don’t even have to worry about confusing changes or assigning more than the required number of hours to employees. If you work in your company’s human resources department, a work scheduling system can also help you track and monitor employee care, overtime and truancy.

Plan your activities

If you are in the business of planning events or offering services during various activities, such as a hotel or catering, a planning tool will be needed to plan events to avoid overlap. For example, hotels use a planning tool to organize the booking of their various functional rooms. A startup that offers car rentals can also use a planning tool to make sure car reservations are in order. You can also use these tools when planning the employees who will be assigned to these activities.

If you juggle left and right appointments, the scheduling tool will help you keep track of who you meet on a given day so you don’t schedule double appointments.

Automation of company services

As airlines began offering online booking services, the number of airline passengers increased. Imagine the ease that automated services, such as online booking, provide to both the company and its customers. A service like the airline’s online booking service uses scheduling software that automatically organizes all the booking information into the company’s system, allowing you to make lower but more efficient ones.

There are more than a dozen planning tools available online, some for a fee and some for free. There are also companies and enterprises that offer planning products and related services. Obviously, the market is constantly growing there, as people are more active and perform different tasks. We are always looking for ways to make our lives easier, and one (or two) of these planning tools is something we can all use.


The Stages of US Airline Deregulation


I. Regulation

Although US airline deregulation was initially envisioned as leading to an increased number of carriers whose divergent service concepts, market segments, fleets, and route structures would have produced new competition, stimulated traffic, and lowered fares, it ultimately came full cycle and only resulted in virtual monopoly. Three distinct stages occurred during its evolution.

The regulation itself traces its origin to 1938 when Congress adopted the Civil Aeronautics Act. Its resultant five-member Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), formed two years later in 1940, regulated fares, authorized routes, awarded subsidies, and approved interline agreements, among other functions.

“Regulation, by definition, substitutes the judgment of the regulator for that of the marketplace,” according to Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book, Deregulating the Airlines (The MIT Press, 1985, p. 96).

So regulated had the environment been, in fact, that an airline often had to resort to the purchase of another carrier just to obtain its route authority. Delta Air Lines, for example, long interested in providing nonstop service between New York and Florida, continually petitioned the CAB for the rights. But the regulatory agency felt that Northeast, a small local service carrier often plagued by low traffic, financial loss, and bad weather because of its route system, needed the lucrative Florida route’s revenue potential to boost it back to health and granted it the authority instead.

Undaunted, Delta ultimately resorted to acquiring the regional carrier and subsequently received approval for the merger on April 24, 1972. But these extremes would shortly no longer be needed.

A glimpse of the future could already be had in California and Texas. Devoid of jurisdiction over local air transportation, the CAB could neither exercise fare nor route authority over intrastate airlines and these carriers, usually offering high-frequency, single-class, no-frills service at half the fares the regulated “trunk” airlines were forced to charge, consistently recorded both profit and traffic growth.

Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines, for example, operating in the Los Angeles-San Francisco market, saw yearly traffic figures increase from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Texas-based Southwest Airlines similarly provided low-fare service between Dallas and Houston and other Texas points. These airlines demonstrated that true deregulation could yield fares accessible to average-income passengers, provide greater airline and service concept choice, and stimulate traffic.

Passengers and government alike increasingly decried regulation during the mid-1970s, citing the examples set by Air California, PSA, Southwest, and other intrastate airlines as demonstrable proof that deregulation could produce mutual airline- and passenger-benefit. At least that was the theory.

Ultimately conceding to reason and democratic rule, President Jimmy Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act on October 28, 1978, in the process eliminating the need for CAB approval of route entrance and exit and reducing most of the current fare restrictions. Even those would eventually be eliminated when the Civil Aeronautics Board, in its now famous “sunset,” was disbanded in 1985.

At the time of the event, eleven then-designated “trunk” carriers collectively controlled 87.2 percent of the domestic revenue passenger miles (RPMs), while 12 regionals, 258 commuters, five supplemental, and four intrastates provided the balance of the RPM distribution. Which would still ply the skies when deregulation’s dust settled?

II. Deregulation

Stage One: New Generation Airlines:

Like the California and Texas intrastate airlines, an increasing number of nontraditional, deregulation-spawned carriers initially infiltrated the US market. The first of these, Midway Airlines, was the first to receive certification after the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act and the first to actually inaugurate service, in 1979.

Founded three years earlier by Irwing Tague, a former Hughes Airwest executive, Midway inaugurated low-fare, high-frequency, no-frills “Rainbow Jet” service in November of that year from Chicago’s underutilized Midway Airport-which was once the city’s only airfield until O’Hare was built and which Midway hoped to resurrect the same way Southwest had at Dallas’s Love Field–with five single-class, 86-passenger, former TWA DC-9-10s, initially to Cleveland, Detroit, and Kansas City. Its low fare structure fostered rapid growth and it strategically hoped to penetrate the Chicago market without attracting O’Hare competition from the established carriers.

But, having been employed by Midway, the author can attest that it quickly learned three vital lessons, which indicated that it would have to remain tremendously flexible in order to survive under prevailing competitive market conditions:

Although it served a secondary Chicago-area airport, it first and foremost still competed in the Chicago market.

Secondly, once the incumbent airlines lowered their fares, its load factors declined.

Finally, the high-density, low-fare strategy, which had become the principle characteristics of deregulation-spawned upstarts, was ineffective when an airline attempted to cater to a specific market segment, such as the higher yield business one, where increased comfort and service were expected.

Resultantly, Midway modified its strategy by introducing a conservative cream-colored livery; single-class, four-abreast business cabin seating with increased legroom; additional carry-on luggage space; and upgraded, complimentary-wine in-flight service in exchange for higher than Rainbow Jet fares, but those which were still below the major carriers’ unrestricted coach tariffs.

The newly implemented strategy, dubbed “Midway Metrolink,” significantly reduced the number of seats per aircraft. While its DC-9-10s and -30s had respectively accommodated 86 and 115 passengers, for example, they were reconfigured for only 60 and 84 under the new Metrolink strategy.

Apparently successful, it sparked explosive growth, from an initial 56,040 passengers in 1979 to almost 1.2 million in 1983.

Capitol Air, another deregulation-transformed carrier of which the author had equally been a part, also experienced initial, rapid expansion. Formed in 1946 as Capitol Airways, it had commenced domestic charter service with Curtiss C-46 Commandos and DC-4s, eventually acquiring larger L-049 Constellations, and by 1950 became the fifth largest US supplemental carrier after World Airways, Overseas National (ONA), Trans International (TIA), and Universal. It acquired the first of what was to become one of the largest used-Super Constellation fleets in January of 1960, eventually operating 17 L-749s, L-1049Gs, and L-1049Hs during the 14-year period from 1955 to 1968.

Redesignated Capitol International Airways, the charter airline took delivery of its first pure-jet in September of 1963, a DC-8-30, and subsequently operated four versions of the McDonnell-Douglas design, inclusive of the -30, -50, -61, and -63 series, which replaced the Lockheed Constellation as the workhorse of its fleet.

Receiving scheduled authority in September of 1978, Capitol inaugurated New York-Brussels service on May 5 of the following year and a second, Chicago/Boston-Brussels transatlantic sector on June 19. Like PSA and Southwest, Capitol Air, a former supplemental carrier, was not regulated by the CAB and therefore conducted its own “deregulation experiment” by sublimating proven charter economics of single-class, high-density, low unrestricted and even standby fares to scheduled service in order to attain low seat-mile costs and profitability.

The scheduled concept, branded “Sky Saver Service,” consistently attracted capacity-exceeding demand and sparked considerable fleet and route system expansion. Operating six DC-8-61s, five DC-8-63s, and five DC-10-10s to seven US domestic, three Caribbean, and three European destinations from a New York-JFK hub by 1982, it attracted an ever-increasing passenger base: 611,400 passengers in 1980, 1,150,000 in 1981, and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers, unaware of deregulation-molded carriers whose low fares could only attain profitability with used aircraft, high-density seating, and lower-wage nonunion employees, often voiced criticism about Capitol Air’s non-interline policy and refusal to provide meals and hotel rooms during delays and compensation during missed, other-airline connections. Nevertheless, its fares in the New York-Los Angeles market ranged from an unrestricted $149 based upon a round-trip purchase to a one-way $189, while the majors’ unrestricted tariffs in the market hovered at the $450 mark. As a result, Capitol Air’s load factors exceeded 90 percent.

By September of 1981 ten new carriers received operating certificates and inaugurated service.

“The first effects of deregulation were dramatic,” wrote Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contests, and Cartels of World Airlines (Random House, 1984, p. 136). “A new breed of air entrepreneurs saw the chance to expand small companies or to establish ‘instant airlines’ which could undercut fares on local routes; they could dispense with much of the superstructure and bureaucracy of the big airlines and could use their flexibility to hit the giants at their weakest points where they could make quick returns.”

Four types of airline types emerged and exerted considerable initial impact on the traditionally regulated airline industry.

The first were the deregulation-spawned upstarts, such as Air Atlanta, Air Florida, Air One, Altair, America West, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air, Morris Air, Muse Air, New York Air, Northeastern International, Pacific East Air, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, Presidential, Reno Air, SunJet International, The Hawaii Express, and ValuJet.

The second were the deregulation-matured local service carriers, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes Airwest, North Central, Ozark, Piedmont, Southern, and Texas International, which quickly outgrew their former, regulation-imposed geographic concentrations.

The third, the boundary-crossing intrastate airlines, encompassed companies such as Air California (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaiian, PSA, Southwest, and Wien Air Alaska.

The fourth were the deregulation-transformed charters, such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica), and World Airways.

Although some of these carriers, particularly Air One and MGM Grand Air, targeted very specific market niches by offering premium seating and service, the vast majority, whether spawned, raised, or matured by deregulative parenting, attained (or attempted to attain) profitability by means of several core operating characteristics, including, of course, low, unrestricted fares, single-hub, short- to medium-range route systems, high-density seating, limited onboard service, lower wage nonunion work forces, and medium-range, medium-capacity trijets, such as the 727, and short-range, low-capacity twinjets, such as the BAC-111, the DC-9, the 737, and the F.28.

All achieved high load factors, generated tremendous traffic in existing and emerging markets, and created considerable competition.

“In this respect,” wrote Barbara Sturken Peterson and James Glab in their book, Rapid Descent: Deregulation and the Shakeout in the Airlines (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307), “deregulation worked like a charm.”

Stage Two: Monopoly:

Although the established, traditionally regulated major carriers temporarily lowered their fares in selected high deregulation airline-concentrated markets in order to retain their passenger bases, the established airlines, long nurtured and protected by regulation, were not structured for profitable operation with them. Yet even in those cases where they managed to eliminate competition from the market, another low-fare upstart seemed waiting in the wings to fill the void.

The incumbent carriers were thus faced with the choice of relinquishing painstakingly developed markets or dwindle financial resources to retain passengers until they themselves slipped into bankruptcy. It quickly became apparent that the deregulation-sparked fare reductions would become permanent elements of the “new” unregulated airline industry and the major carriers eventually discovered that they had to fundamentally restructure themselves or succumb to the new breed of airlines. Almost every aspect of their operations would, in the end, be transformed.

The first aspect targeted was the route system. Traditionally comprised of point-to-point, nonstop service, which had its origins in 1940 and 1950 CAB route authorizations, these route systems actually contained no inherent “system” at all, and consisted instead of unbalanced geographical encompassments that resulted in lost revenue to other carriers and inefficient, uneconomical use of existing fleets. What was really needed was a centralized “collecting point” for self-feed.

Because of bilateral agreements, European carriers actually operated the first “hubs,” channeling passengers from, say, Copenhagen to Athens by means of an intermediate connecting point such as Dusseldorf. Any passenger flying either the Copenhagen-Dusseldorf or Athens-Dusseldorf sector could theoretically transfer to any of the airline’s outward-radiating flight spokes, vastly increasing the number of markets potentially served. These European capital hubs also demonstrated increased aircraft utilization, improved traffic flow, a larger market base than traditional point-to-point service relying only on origin-and-destination traffic could have supported, and retention of the connecting passenger.

“Although passengers prefer frequent nonstop service, such service can be quite costly,” according to Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan (p. 74). “Airlines thus face strong incentives to establish hub-and-spoke operations… By combining passengers with different origins and destinations, a carrier can increase the average number of passengers per flight and thereby reduce costs. Essentially the broader scope of operation lets the carrier take advantage of the economies of scale in aircraft. At the same time a hub-and-spoke operation provides more convenient service for travelers in less heavily traveled markets.”

The first US hub had its origins in the 1940s when the government, attempting to develop the south, awarded Delta some profitable, long-range routes in exchange for its agreement to serve several small communities from Atlanta.

“All of these routes became the ‘spokes’ leading into a Delta ‘hub’ at Atlanta,” said Peterson and Glab (p. 120). “With it came the compelling benefit of passenger retention.”

Allegheny, formerly a Pittsburgh-based local service carrier without a distinctive long-range development plan, recorded considerable success on its eastern and mid-Atlantic state route network, which had progressively “evolved” because of its Pennsylvania funneling point. Increasing the balance of its predominantly business and small community route system with longer-range sectors to leisure-oriented destinations, it was further able to nurture this evolution and by 1978 73 percent of its passengers connected. By 1981 this figure rose to 89 percent-meaning that 89 percent of those flying to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh were not flying to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

The Delta and Allegheny hubs were only the beginning of the phenomenon, since the concept did more than create airline concentration in a particular city. Instead, it resulted in an ultimate monopolistic strangulation that precluded any competition.

At four of the major US hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O’Hare, Dallas-Ft. Worth, and Denver), for example, “the two largest carriers have simply squeezed out or have made it virtually impossible for other airlines to expand and gain market share,” wrote Julius Maldutis in Airline Competition at the 50 Largest US Airports since Deregulation (Salomon Brothers, Inc., 1987, p. 4).

In Atlanta, where both Delta and Eastern once had hubs, the possibility of any significant third-carrier competition was eliminated. In 1978, for instance, Delta’s and Eastern’s hub traffic percentages were respectively 49.65- and 39.17-percent, while nine years later these figures had increased to 52.51- and 42.24-percent.

Analysis of the 50 largest airports (which represented 81.1 percent of US scheduled passenger enplanements) indicated that only ten of these airports could have been considered less than highly concentrated. On the other hand, 40 (or 80 percent) of the airports had excessive amounts of concentration. The ten most concentrated airports had one airline that had more than a 66-percent market share of passenger enplanements.

In St. Louis, where both TWA and Ozark operated hubs, the former enjoyed a 39.06- percent market share, while the latter had a 20.21-percent of it in 1978. In 1986 these corresponding figures respectively increased to 63.16 and 19.68 percent. The following year, after TWA acquired Ozark, its only other significant competitor, it parlayed this share into 82.34 percent with nine other US domestic airlines sharing the remaining 17.66 percent. An airline computer listing, reflecting all carriers operating between New York’s three major airports and St. Louis on December 1, 1995, revealed 27 flights on this day. Not one of them was operated by a carrier other than TWA! This was power.

Similarly, deregulation-matured Piedmont, which only captured a 10.19-percent market share in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1977, parlayed this into a monopolistic 87.87-percent a decade later after having established a hub there. The same transformation occurred in Pittsburgh with Allegheny/USAir/US Airways-43.65 percent in 1977 and 82.83 percent in 1987.

“Since a large proportion of city-pair markets cannot support convenient nonstop service, hub-and-spoke operations have proved to be the dominant strategy of air carriers since deregulation,” wrote Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan (p. 196). “There has been a significant shift away from the regulatory vision of linear systems and toward sunbursts of routes.”

Aside from the hubbing concept, the major carriers experienced several other fundamental changes. Aircraft, for example, were reconfigured for higher-density-and, in some cases, single-class-seating, while business cabins augmented first class and coach sections on selected routes; first class cabins were later altogether replaced by those of business class in a trend-following pattern sparked by some special-niche deregulation airlines.

Fuel-inefficient aircraft types were gradually replaced by new-generation designs and daily utilization increased-from 8.6 hours in 1971 to 10.3 hours in 1979. During the 1970s and early 1980s average aircraft size increased on long-range sectors, while during the late-1980s the size increased in all categories. During the early 1990s pure-jet technology for the first time penetrated all markets-from the 50-passenger regional to the 500-passenger intercontinental.

Employment was also metamorphosed. According to Robert Crandall, former chairman and chief executive officer of American Airlines, “deregulation is profoundly anti-labor… there has been a massive transfer of wealth from airline employees to airline passengers.”

The deregulation-spawned airlines’ fare reductions produced a lower revenue and profit base from which funding could be rechanneled into traditionally high employment salaries and benefit packages, thus necessitating increased employee productivity, cross-utilization, part-time, nonunion, profit-sharing measures. In some cases, employment was actually provided by contracted ground service companies in order to reduce benefit compensation. The author was involved in the initial ground service company experiment at JFK International Airport between Triangle Aviation Services and Royal Jordanian Airlines.

“A relatively new, but quickly developing concept, the service company provides the personnel on a contractual basis to the particular carrier for which a certain amount per daily turn-around is assessed, according to Airport-Based Airline Careers (Hicksville, New York, 1995, p. 9). “The service company then hires the personnel, conducts the training programs (if any), and determines the hourly wage and benefit package.”

Having worn Royal Jordanian’s uniform and provided all ground operations functions, I often felt “caught in the middle,” simultaneously attempting to please both the passenger and the airline. After all, they were both my customer, revealing the concept’s inherent conflict.

Reduced airline employment wages and benefits actually trace their origins to Crandall himself who devised a plan to reduce employment costs with a “B-scale” payment scheme that initially offered lower salaries to newly-hired employees and required them to accrue greater longevity before they could attain the higher “A-scale” levels.

“American (itself) was poised to increase enormously in size, and it had a strong incentive to so,” said Peterson and Glab (p. 136). “The more it expanded, the more workers it would hire-all at lower B-scale wages-and the more its average costs would drop.”

According to Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan in their work, Deregulating the Airlines, regulation created above-industry standard monetary and benefit compensation. “It is now clear that inflexible work rules and higher than competitive pay flourished during regulation. Airline employees appear to have benefited substantially from CAB’s protective regulation.” (p. 197)

Yet another deregulation-sparked necessity was the increasing reliance on automation. American Airlines, again led by Crandall, created the first computerized airline reservation system, SABRE, which was immediately followed by United’s Apollo System. As powerful sales tools, these automated systems were purchased by travel agents who paid a varying fee to their owners for each booking made while smaller carriers had to negotiate for representation.

So sophisticated and multifaceted did these systems become that their information was progressively sublimated through each aspect of the airline’s operation with their “reservation modes” providing reservations, itineraries, fares, hotel, tour, and ground transportation bookings, frequent flier mile tracking, and ticketing; their “departure control systems” (DCS) providing passenger check-in and boarding pass issuance; and their “controller modes” utilizing this information for aircraft weight and balance and load plan and load sheet generation.

It is only through these sophisticated airline reservation systems that carriers were able to implement “yield management” programs-that is, the determination of the optimized balance of passenger-attracting low fares and profit-generating high fares based upon seasonality, departure time, demand, convenience, capacity, and competition to produce an ultimately profitable flight. An airline reservation system consultation, for instance, listed 27 separate fares between New York and Los Angeles on December 1, 1995 just with American Airlines, ranging from an unrestricted $1,741.82 one-way first class fare to a highly restricted $226.36 round-trip coach fare. The codes in the “Fare Basis” column, such as “KPE7HOLN,” were accessed in order to reveal the restrictions attached to each–the printout of which spanned several pages!

Another fundamental change to the deregulated industry was both the structure of and relationship of the regional and commuter carriers to the majors. Because history is sometimes cyclic, the pattern once demonstrated by the local service airlines of abandoning small community, low-density routes when they acquired pure-jet aircraft once again occurred, but now with two primary differences: (1). The present-day regionals were never, by regulation, restricted to these routes, and (2). Although rapidly-expanding with pure-jet fleets of their own, they attempted to coexist, rather than compete, with the majors through code-share agreements in which their aircraft appeared in major-resembling liveries and their flights carried the affiliated airline’s two-letter codes.

Of the 300 destinations served by Delta during the latter part of 1995, for example, 85 of these were actually reached by one of its four “Delta Connection” code-share carriers, including Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA), Business Express, Comair, and Skywest-only the first of which had yet to acquire pure-jet equipment at that time. American outwardly purchased its own commuter-feed airlines and collectively designated them “American Eagle.”

Nevertheless, the major carriers’ deregulation-necessitated restructuring was complete.

When TWA matched Capitol Air’s unrestricted transcontinental coach fares, the former supplemental recorded 30-passenger bookings on DC-8-61 aircraft otherwise able to accommodate 252 and canceled its flights. In a similar situation, when established USAir’s and upstart’s PEOPLExpress’s load factors were analyzed in the Buffalo-Newark market between August of 1981 and June of 1982, the latter consistently reported those that were at least 20 points lower.

“The data thus suggests that many consumers chose to travel on the carrier with the greater name recognition and amenities when the fare is the same,” continued Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan (p. 106).

Competition ultimately forced Capitol Air to realign its route system to include an increasing number of ethnic and un- and underserved markets until the majors also encroached on this territory and the carrier was left with little choice but to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, ceasing operations on November 25, 1984.

Midway equally encountered major-carrier opposition. Indeed, whatever strategy it implemented to define its optimum niche, it was always counteracted by the aggressive majors. Acquiring Air Florida in 1984, for example, it reconfigured its aircraft with dual-class seating, but riding on both sides of a seesaw, it soon swung back to the single-class concept and in November of 1989 once again to the dual-class one, by which time it operated an 82-strong fleet with its “Midway Connection” affiliation and carried 5.2 million yearly passengers.

But over-expansion and an attempt to replace Eastern at its Philadelphia hub during poor economic times in direct competition with USAir resulted in its own demise two years later, on November 13.

“Although these numerous strategies indicated a constant reassessment of its proper course, they also indicated the instability of market conditions in deregulated skies and the airline’s determination to remain in them and its resiliency to navigate them with a juxtaposition of service concepts, cabin configurations, seating densities, and marketing strategies,” according to The McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 (Hicksville, New York, 1991, p. 59).

Capitol Air and Midway were only two examples of deregulation-matured carriers that succumbed to the radically restructured majors. Indeed, of the approximately 100 airlines that had been certified since the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act, only one, America West, was still in operation at the end of 1995.

“(The major airlines) implemented a strategy with which they could beat the lower-fare competition at its own game by aggressively expanding and charging comparable fares, despite high losses on certain routes, all in an effort to maintain-or, in some cases, to regain-market share… The major carriers grew mighty and monopolistic by eliminating competition wherever it was encountered,” according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Handling Manual-JFK (Hicksville, New York, 1990, pp. 10-11).

Stage Three: Megacarrier:

Airline expansion, once set in motion, seemed self-propelled and resisted inertia. Monopolies, by definition, know no boundaries. The logical next step was foreign market penetration.

Unlike US domestic growth, however, “it was a lot tougher for a US airline to gain access to a new foreign market than to a new domestic one, because international air services were still tightly regulated by bilateral agreements between the United States and foreign governments,” wrote Peterson and Glab (p. 283). “… To win immediate operating rights to a foreign country, a US carrier had to buy the route authority from another US airline.”

The phenomenon, it will be recalled, was a virtual repetition of the US domestic governmental structure prior to deregulation. Such a purchase in the latter case was usually only granted if the route-authorized airline was in financial difficulty and needed the revenue generated by the sale to remain viable.

Pan Am, particularly hammered by deregulation’s effects, was forced to sell its lucrative Pacific division, along with aircraft and ground facilities, to United for $750 million to remain afloat. United, already then a large, financially sound airline, now had a global route network with proper domestic feed.

More important than the sale, however, was its far-reaching implications. “The United Airlines purchase of Pan Am’s Pacific division was to set off a domino effect,” continued Peterson and Glab (p. 148) “Many airlines were alarmed at the new competition they faced, especially Northwest, which objected to the nation’s largest airline moving onto its Pacific turf. Northwest knew it would need a substantially bigger domestic network of its own, and the fastest way to get one would be through a merger.”

By the end of 1986 it had done just that, acquiring Republic, which itself had been formed by the North Central-Southern merger in 1979 and the secondary Hughes Airwest acquisition in 1980, and the strategy rewarded Northwest with monopolistic status at all of its hubs, such as Minneapolis, with an 81.55-percent market share.

Delta, fearing it would be unable to compete with airlines of such magnitude, acquired Western Airlines for $860 million in September of 1986, in the process obtaining a coast-to-coast route structure and new hubs in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

The already described TWA-Ozark merger produced such a lock on St. Louis that it controlled three-quarters of all gates and was able to assess much higher fares in those markets where there was no competition.

In fact, these mergers only served to tighten a carrier’s already almost unrelenting grip on a particular hub. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F.28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just.75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver-based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the “megacarrier.”

“Deregulation’s theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be ‘survival of the fittest,’ which, for the airlines, translated as ‘survival of the largest,’ according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). “If the long-established major carriers… wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain ‘large.'”

The major airlines’ fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few “niche” airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Conclusion

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors’ name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.


Study London for a limited time


The big cities of the world are not just the size, but also the heart. Their arteries are not just marked by asphalt and traffic, but also by the noise of continuous, bright activity.

To immerse yourself in this energy and make the most of it in the capital of England, you need to plan a route to make the most of your time. One way to make sure you don’t waste valuable time is to pre-book one of London’s convenient minibuses to and from airports.

Save time on excursions

No matter how locals complain about it, the bus and train systems of this big old town are relatively easy to decipher and use for tourists. But the great benefit of booking one of London’s private shuttle taxis to and from the airport is that they save you the time spent reviewing the Tube map, trying to find the best and fastest way to your accommodation. Instead, you will be able to spend this time on some really exciting excursions. Big Ben, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Buckingham Palace – if you didn’t have time to see all these landmarks, because you wasted your time just getting to your place of residence and planning a trip back to the airport, the money saved wouldn’t be enough for him.

Explore around your hotel

Of course, many prudent travelers carefully plan how to get out of the hotel to Heathrow, Gatwick or Stansted, but traveling by train or bus takes a long time. If you could save all that time by booking one of London’s private shuttles, what would you spend it on? One great option is to explore the hotel’s surroundings on foot. If your home is located near museums or downtown attractions, or it’s further away, near canals or falls, there are so many nooks and crannies waiting to be explored.

Enjoy the route

Exhausted and a little annoyed after traveling, it’s easy to keep your eyes on a wall, electronic device, map, or some abstract space while you’re sitting on a train or bus. Yet this city possesses such a unique style that is shaped by decades and centuries of living history that it should become part of your adventure to explore the city with your eyes at every opportunity. Booking one of London’s fine shuttle taxis to and from the airport gives you the opportunity to do so in your spare time – and see the side of town you might miss.


Where are the best hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil?


Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and the world’s 7th largest metropolis. This alpha world city with many hotspots for tourism is the second most populous metropolis in America. This famous commercial and entertainment center has the famous nickname “Sampa”.

São Paulo has a large number of well-equipped hospitals offering international health services. Its private health sector is very large, it has many world-class hospitals, and most of the country’s major hospitals are located in Sao Paulo. All of these leading hospitals in Sao Paulo offer the services of English-speaking staff.

Here is a brief description of some of Sao Paulo’s leading hospitals.

Alemao Hospital Oswald Cruz (German Hospital Aswald Cruz) located at RuaJoaoJuliao, 331-Paraiso CEP 01323-903- São Paulo is an excellent hospital in Brazil with an international reputation. This 239-bed hospital was founded in 1897 by a group of German immigrants. This accredited International Commission (JCI) hospital has also received TEMOS certification, a telemedicine for the mobile society. This well-known German agency praised Alemaa Oswald Cruz Hospital for providing the best medical care to Europeans visiting Brazil. Conducting many very complex operations, the hospital has also received the highest level certificate from the Brazilian Accreditation Organization (ONA). The hospital has 239 beds, 13 intensive care beds, 13 operating theaters with 4 laminate systems, a sterilized materials store, equipment, a best-equipped ambulance and 15 PRA (Post Anesthesia Recovery) beds. The hospital offers excellent clinical, diagnostic and surgical services in a variety of departments, including cardiology, imaging, endoscopy, memory stimulation, metabolic surgery, nephrology and dialysis, orthopedics, diabetes treatment, physiotherapy, hematology, human oncology and transplantation. The center offers warm accommodation in friendly and caring conditions. Phone: 55 11 3549-0093

Syrio Libanes Hospital located at Rua Dona Adma Jafet, 91Bela Vista – Sao Paulo – SPCEP: 01308-060 – one of the most popular, modern hospitals in Brazil and Latin America. Established in 1965, the 300-seat premier health center employs 4,500 people, performs 50 surgical procedures daily, and conducts 2,000 different types of diagnostic tests. The hospital has achieved an international reputation by offering high quality healthcare services in more than 40 medical specialties and possessing all the advances in medical technology. They offer world-class medical services in various centers of excellence, which include an oncology center, cardiology center, diagnostic center, renal replacement therapy, rehabilitation center, urology, gynecology, orthopedics, gastroenterology, magnetic resonance imaging center and special diagnostic center known. The hospital provides excellent accommodation in comfortable apartments / suites with hallway, cable TV, internet connection, minibar, telephone and background music. The hospital started a well-equipped and round-the-clock ambulance service with a special area for children in 1992 and has a modern IRU with 22 beds for adult patients. This service-oriented hospital, well known for its approach to patients, is also the most famous medical educational and research institution in the country and has created the famous IEP – Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa (Educational Research Institute). This hospital, a member of Brazilian Health Products and Services, attracts a large number of patients from abroad, especially from Europe and the US, adopts many international health plans and has an excellent field of international relations with English-speaking staff. Phone .: 55 11 3155-0900

Samaritan Hospital in Sao Paulo another major hospital in Brazil with a broad reputation. It is one of the city’s oldest hospitals, appearing in 1890. The hospital, founded by a group of American, British and German immigrants, began modestly and then grew significantly and became a modern health center accredited by the JCI. international standard. This 200-bed hospital offers complete and effective medical and surgical care in a variety of departments such as cardiology, neurology, pediatrics, orthopedics, gynecology, neonatology, oncology, urology and emergency procedures. More than 1,100 doctors and surgeons practice here, and the hospital’s surgical department has gained widespread recognition for performing highly sophisticated and video-assisted surgeries. Samaritano Hospital is a popular center for epileptic surgery, plastic surgery and cochlear implants. This hospital, well known for its advanced technology and best personal care products, has special facilities for international patients. The hospital offers excellent accommodation in large private rooms with comfortable bathrooms, telephone, internet, automatic safe and cable TV. The customer service section provides the best service when booking hotels, purchasing bus and airline tickets, translation, foreign exchange, laundry, car parking, etc. Phone: (+55) 11-3821-5300


Best Online Travel Companies (OTAs) in India – Know Them Best Before You Use Their Services


In India there are more than 30 internet travel companies excluding airlines and other hotel sites. Few of them specialize in a particular field. For all visitors to India who come from all over the world, the top ten sites where you can book a trip to India are below – – MakeMyTrip, India’s № 1 travel website, founded and promoted by Mr. Deep Kalray, is the main website in the country for any related products and services. They now offer airline tickets, hotel reservations, car rentals, travel destinations and even train reservations on their website. Makemytrip serves the American and Canadian markets, the Indian market, and recently they also started operating in the UAE. Makemytrip is currently preparing an IPO in the US and is raising about $ 100 million. They corresponded and raised about $ 800 million. Their office is located in Gurgaon, India, and they have more than 700 employees. Their code specialization is vacation planning and booking, including field trips. It is estimated that they sell more than 8,000 tickets a day.

Liver – Yatra is known to be the second best website for OTA travel in the country. He was promoted by Druw Shringi along with several other guys who had worked in e-books before the venture. Yatra is funded by some of the leading Indian Reliance groups, TV 18 Group and NVP, and recently received funding from Intel. They specialize in domestic flights. They are also based in Gurgaon, India and have over 600 employees. They also book car rentals, hotels, vacations and train reservations. They are currently expected to sell over 5,000 tickets a day.

Cleartrip – Cleartrip was a new entrant to the Indian market about 3 years ago and they are known for their technology. As the name implies, their technology is very clear, and on their home page you don’t see banners and pop-ups. They were the first OTAs to integrate into an Indian rail reservation system called IRCTC. They are based in Mumbai and have a smaller team compared to Makemytrip and Yatra.

Expedia India – Expedia has recently entered the Indian travel space and they are now focusing on the hotel business. They have not yet included in their portfolio LCC (Low Cost Carrers) such as GoAir, GoIndigo, JetLite, Kingfisher Red, etc. But I am sure that in a year they will lead in the Indian market.

Travelocity India – Travelocity has once again become a participant in the Indian market and they are developing rapidly. They recently bought another OTA hotel called Travelguru. They are run from Singapore.